The Slave Dynasty comprised of mainly five dynasties which were Mamluk, Khilji,Tughlaq,sayyid,Afgan lodhi dynasty. These five dynasties ruled over Delhi and a few parts of Indian subcontinent. As the story goes around 1st century B.C. Hindu and Jains Kingdoms were raided from the Muslims of Central Asia and this lead to the weakening of these kingdoms and the rise of Delhi Sultanate .
The literal meaning of ‘Mamluk’ is Slave. The main Sultan of this period was Qutub ud Din Aibak, who built the qutub minar in Delhi. Qutub ud din aibak also built Quwwat-ul-Islam, which is now a UNESCO world heritage site.
The Last ruler of Mamluk Dynasty was killed by Jalal-ud-din Khilji, who became the first Sultan of Khilji Dynasty. Jalal-ud-din Khilji was the sultan for 6 years and he was overthrown by his nephew ala al-din Khilji who killed him. He changed the tax policies substantially where he increased the taxes from 20% to 50% on agricultural products.
Tughlaq Dynasty ruled for the most time on Delhi and Indian Subcontinent . The First Sultan was Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq who built a new town which is known as Tughlaqabad now in Delhi. The Greatest Sultan of this Dynasty was Mohammed bin Tughlaq. It was under his rule that Delhi sultanate reached its peak and covered most parts of India.Like All Delhi Sultanate rulers he also destroyed many temples . After the Death of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq he was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled for 37 years.
Sayyid Dynasty(1414- 1451):
Sayyid Khizr Khan was the first sultan of this Dynasty. Till this time Delhi sultanate has lost its power and it was very close to decimation and people in Delhi started to revolt against the brutality and inhuman practices. Sayyid Khan was succeeded by Mubarak Shah, but he could not hold on and was succeeded by Lodhi Dynasty.
They were Afghani Migrants and Bahlol Lodhi was the first ruler. After his death Sikander Shah Ghazi Lodhi took control and ruled till 1517. Like every other Muslim ruler, he went on a Campaign to destroy Temples. Sikander Lodhi was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodhi. He was not a popular ruler and was defeated in the battle of Panipat in 1526 and Delhi Sultanate was succeeded by Mughal Empire.
The Highlights if slave dynasty were that these people only came to India to propagate and Islam and destroy Hindu temples. The Dynasty is known for its inhuman act and brutality. We are not praising the architecture because that is built by destroying the previous monuments.