Around 1900 BC Indus valley civilization came to end at that time the Indo-aryan migrated to India and their civilization was the vedic period. Vedic Period is reffered to as the golden era in India History. It is said that Aryans Migrated from Central Asia. In the Vedic Period they settled in Punjab which was known as ‘sapta sindhu’ as it was the home to seven rivers. Boghazkai Inscription proves there were four gods that were worshipped in the time of Vedic period which were Indra, Varuna, Mitra and Nasatyas. The highlight of Vedic period was the Vedic literature. It is said Vedas are the oldest texts of the world. Vedic Literature consists of The Vedas, The Brahamanas, The Aranyakas and The Upanishads.
It is said that Vedas are known as ‘Apaurasheya’ which means they were not created by man and they were God Gifted. We have four Vedas which are Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda.
THE RIG VEDA:
- They are the oldest of all four and are a collection of Hymns.
- It contains 1028 hymns which is divided in 10 mandals.
- The 1st and 10th Mandal was added later.
- The 10th Mandal explains the four varnas which are Brahamanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudra.
- Six Mandals from 2nd to 7th are known as gotras.
THE SAMA VEDA:
- The Sama Veda is also Known as Book of Chants.
- It contains 1549 hymns and most have been taken from Rig Veda.
- Sama Veda is not supposed to be read as a text it is a Musical chant and has to be heard.
THE YAJUR VEDA:
- It is also Known as book of Sacrificial Prayers.
- It consists of Krishna Yajur Veda and Shukla Yajur Veda.
- It has more than 1800 verses.
THE ATHARVA VEDA:
- It is also Known as book of magical formulae.
- It has chants to remove evils and diseases.
- Aranya Means forest and forest literature was called as Aranayakas.
- They were very important in Vedic Period.
- These are called forest texts as they were written by hermits who lived in jungles.
- They are also known as Vedanta.
- Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya are the oldest Upanishads.
- Satyamev jayate(Truth alone truimps) has been taken from Mundaka Upanishad.
It was in the vedic period that the two mahakavyas were written which were
- The Ramayana.
- The Mahabharata.
It was in Vedic period that Upvedas were written which were a part of Vedas:
- Shilpveda(art and craft).
Vedic Period is always remembered in history as the intellectual age as the focus was litreature and finding of inner self.
Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the same tree.
One of them eats the sweet fruit, the other looks on without eating.
On the same tree man sits grieving, drowned (in sorrow), bewildered, feeling helpless,
But when he sees the other (lord) content, knows his glory, his grief passes away.
When the seer sees the brilliant maker and Isa as the Purusha who has his source in Brahman,
then he is wise, he shakes off good and evil, stainless he reaches the highest oneness.Mundaka Upanishad, 3.1.1 – 3.1.2