There were some relegious movements that started in the post vedic period and among them Buddhism and Jainism were the main Relegions. Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and he was born in 563 bc in lumbini. Gautam Buddha was the son of Suddhodhana who was the king of Kapilvastu and Mahamaya who was a princess of Kosala Dynasty. As the story goes Gautam Buddha the founder of Buddhism saw four sights which were a dead body, an old man, a diseased person and an ascetic person which turned to be tbhe turning point of his life. After 49 days of complete meditataion under the pipal tree in Bodh Gaya, Gautam Buddha attained Niravana or enlightnement. There are a few Noble truths of Buddhism which are:
- Sabbam Dukkam(Life is full of sorrow).
- Dwadash Nidan( There are caused of sorrow).
- Dukha Nirodha (These sorrows can be stopped).
- Ashtangika Marga( There is a path away from all these sorrows).
Buddhism has two paths which are:
ASHTANGIKA MARGA( eight fold path)
- Right Observation.
- Right Determination.
- Right Speech.
- Right Action.
- Right Livelihood.
- Right Excercise.
- Right Memory.
- Right Meditation.
MADHYA MARGA( Middle Path)
As per Madhya Marga Buddhism says humans should avoid both extreme which is a life filled with luxury and comfort or a complete life of ascetic saint. Buddhism teaches us to find the middle path that should include wordly affairs and being close to ascetism as well.
There are three jewels of Buddhism which are :
- Buddha (the enlightened)
- Dharama (doctrine)
- Sangha( the commune)
SECTS OF BUDDHISM
- The Followers of Hinayana beleived in the original teachings of Gautam Buddha.
- They achieved individual salvation through meditation.
- They never beleived in Idol worship.
- It is also known as southern Buddhism as it prevailed in Southern India.
- They beleived in the heavenliness of Guatam Buddha.
- They beleived in Idol worship.
- They favoured sanskrit Language.
- It is Known as Northern Buddhist Relegion.
- They beleived that salavation could be acheived through magical powers.
- The magical power was called as vajra.
- It is known as Eastern Buddhist Relegion as it prevailed in Bihar and Bengal.
- PALI TEXTS:
- tripitaka : The meaning of pitaka is known as basket and these texts were orginally were written on palm leaves and kept is a basket.
- Vinay pitaka is known as monastic code.
- Dipavamasha and mahavamsha are the great chronicles of Sri Lanka.
2. SANSKRIT TEXTS:
- Buddha charita, Saundarananda, Sutralankar are some of the sanskrit texts.
Gautam Buddha died at the age of 80 in 483 bc at kushinagara. Some of the sacred shrines are lumbini, Bodh gaya where four principle events of Buddha’s life are wriiten which are:
- Nirvana( enlightenment)
- MAHAPARINIRVANA( Death).
Gautam Buddha in Buddhism teaches us to be simple in living and attain Nirvana .